by Tom Bisio edited by O Society September 12, 2019
Xing Yi Quan & San Ti Shi
Standing in San Ti Shi is one of the most important parts of foundational training (Ji Ben Gong) of Xing Yi Quan. In Xing Yi Quan there are three key elements that must simultaneously cultivated and integrated – Spirit, Qi and Form. Without Qi form is empty, and without form Qi cannot be employed. Qi and form are the root. Without spirit, Qi and form have no guidance and the forms can not be transcended.
In the Transported Spirit Classic of the Nei Gong Zhen Chuan it says:
Training Xing (Form), one becomes firm;
Training the Jing (Essence), one reaches fullness.
Training the Qi, one becomes strong;
Training the Shen (Spirit) one is capable of flight (ie: one is transported). 
Xing Yi Quan focuses on the simultaneous cultivation of the interior and exterior, and the integration of Spirit, Qi and body forms or patterns. Internally, Qi moves upward and downward, inward and outward, and externally there are constant changes in potentiated power – Jin (refined power) rises and falls, and moves vertically and transversely, inward and outwards, with an interplay of suppleness and firmness. Xing Yi Quan’s seeming magical results with regards to martial techniques and nourishing life (Yang Sheng) can only be realized when these elements are combined. San Ti Shi (Three Body Posture) is the one of the most important methods of training the various aspects of Qi, form and Jin and Shen.
San Ti Shi is a method of Zhan Zhuang (“Stake Standing”) in which one must stand relatively motionless, while holding the Splitting Fist (Pi Quan) posture. San Ti Shi is also known as Three Powers (San Cai 三才桩) Standing. It is the fundamental training of Xing Yi Quan. The martial abilities of the senior masters were mostly achieved by standing in San Ti Shi. There is a famous saying that, Three Splitting Fists are not as good as a one standing (三劈不如一站). Traditionally, students were supposed to stand in San Ti Shi for three years before learning the other boxing forms and methods.
Dantian, Qi, & Form
Liu Qi Lan was one of the great Xing Yi boxers from Hebei Province. A direct disciple of Li Neng Ran (also known as Li Luo Neng), who organized Xing Yi Quan as we know it today, Liu Qi Lan went on to train many famous disciples. Liu Qi Lan’s son, Liu Wen Hua (also known as Liu Dan Chen), was also a skilled Xing Yi practitioner. Liu Wen Hua wrote the Detailed Collection of the Art of Xing Yi Quan, which today remains one of the best single books on the correct practice of Xing Yi Quan.
In the Detailed Collection of the Art of Xing Yi Quan, Liu Wen Hua goes into great detail about training Dantian,Qi and Form:
The so-called saying that the Dantian area must be drilled first if one desires to be proficient the martial techniques, means that Qi is not enough if one is deficient in the Dantian area, and strength is not enough if Qi is not sufficient. This leads to empty postures and forms in the five fists and twelve animal forms. In terms of the defending method it is like guarding an empty city. In terms of the striking method, it is similar a soldier riding a weak and feeble horse into battle.
When confronting an enemy, there must be an accumulation of firm strength around the umbilicus in the abdomen, flowing naturally from the waist upward to the back, neck and vertex, so that the eyes are able to look around first like a general to respond with the drilling, turning, crossing, erecting, rising and falling movements, applying the dragon, tiger, monkey, horse, eagle and bear styles in constant changes, so as to win the victory in a single moment. Because there is fullness in the Dantian area, the martial techniques can be proficient. 
Liu then discusses how to create fullness in Dantian:
First, it is necessary to accumulate Qi. Secondly, it is necessary to circulate Qi. Accumulation of the Qi is exactly what it is mentioned in the Eight Necessities, namely, the methods of touching the roof with the tongue, knocking the teeth, lifting the anus and integrating three central parts. Also, it is necessary [for Qi] to flow through the diaphragm and the five layers of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney one by one without any blockage. It is what is meant by “the five elements should be smooth.” If Qi flows like this for a long time, Qi is able to be complete and gather in the Dantian area. If Qi is unable to flow smoothly, it is not possible to develop unique skills. Therefore, it is necessary to guide the accumulated energy in the Dantian area to flow from the back to the chest cavity to fill the abdominal cavity and internal organs and then to gather in the two hypochondriac regions and finally to gush into the vertex.
Training of Dantian, Qi, and Form occurs through correct training of San Ti Shi
The Eight Necessities
Liu goes on to say the starting point for training Qi is the Eight Necessities, or Eight Musts. The Eight Necessities are trained in San Ti Shi.
The Eight Necessities are:
- Uphold Internally 內要提 （Nei Yao Ti)
- Combine the Three Centers 三心要並 (San Xin Yao Bing)
- Link the Three Intentions 三意要連 (San Yi Yao Lian)
- The Five Elements Should be Smooth 五行要順 (Wu Xing Yao Shun)
- The Four Extremities are Orderly 四梢要齊 (Si Shao Yao Qi)
- The Heart is Calm 心要暇 (Xin Yao Xia)
- The Three Tips are Lined Up 三尖要對 (San Jian Yao Dui)
- The Eyes are Venomous 眼要毒 (Yan Yao Du)
1. Uphold Internally
Uphold the anus in order to uplift Qi so it gathers in the Dantian area. Then Qi will circulate as it accumulates in Dantian – it circulates upward through the Du channel to the vertex at Du 20. This is known as gather the anus and uphold Qi internally.
2. Combine the Three Hearts
Integrate the vertex with the center (heart) of the sole [of the foot] and the soles with the palm centers. This allows Qi to circulate above and below and to the interior and exterior. Once these three parts are integrated, Qi is able to return to Dantian.
3. Link the Three Intentions
The Three Intentions are also called the “Three Internal Harmonies.”
The Three Internal Harmonies are:
- Heart-Mind and Intention (Xin and Yi)
- Force/Power (Jin-Li).
Qi is the connecting link between intention and power and between strategy and application of force.
4. Five Elements are Smooth
The external Five Elements refer to the Five Fists: Splitting (Pi), Bursting (Beng), Drilling (Zuan), Pounding or Cannon (Pao), and Crossing (Heng) fists. The internal Five Elements refer to five Zang organs: heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. If the external forms (the Five Fists – External Five Elements) are practiced correctly, power and Qi will increase in the internal organs (internal Five Elements). The great boxer Cao Ji Wu said that the Five Elements (Wu Xing) are really five passes  that are not guarded or blocked. Liu Wen Hua adds that these five passes can become blocked if left unguarded. By training precisely and by breaking the blockage of the five passes, Qi can to gather in the Dantian area and flow into the four limbs.
5. The Four Extremities are unified 
- Prop up the roof of the mouth with the tongue so body fluid (saliva) can concentrate, ensuring the smooth circulation of qi and blood. The Tongue is the Tip of the Flesh.
- Knock the teeth together so Qi can flow into the bone marrow. The Teeth are the Tip of the Bones.
- Hold the fingers and toes inward slightly so Qi can pour into the sinews. The Nails are the Tip of the Sinews
- Tightening the hair pores (so the hairs stand up) to gather and unite the Qi of the whole body. The Hair Pores are the Tip of the Blood.
6. The Heart is Calm
When training, the heart and emotions should be calm and tranquil and the Jing Shen must be concentrated. The moment the heart-mind moves, the intention (Yi) follows it immediately. Therefore, the Heart-Mind must not be apprehensive nor hurried. When standing In San Ti Shi, the respiration should be natural, without any direct intention or deliberate management.
7. The Three Tips  are Lined Up
The tip of the nose, the hand and the foot are lined up. If three tips are not in a straight line, it will be difficult to train the Qi.
8. The Eyes are Venomous
The “eyes are venomous” implies that the eyes are sensitive and perceptive. As Qi concentrates, the Jing Shen  will become agile and one’s mental ability ample. The senses, hearing, taste and smell will be keen and in particular the eyes will be lustrous and bright in their expression. The sensitivity of the eyes relates to the San Min (三敏), the Three Sensitivities (Perceptions; Sharpnesses):
- The Heart is Min
- The Eyes are Min
- The Hands are Min
When the eyes and heart are Min, one can react appropriately to every situation and the hands will act in accordance with the changing circumstances.
The Eight Word Song (Ba Zi Jue)
The Three Sensitivities are part of the Eight Word Song (Ba Zi Jue 八字诀). The Eight Word Song is another method of detailing the body configuration – the internal and external alignments – that are integrated into an organic whole when training San Ti Shi.
1. 三顶 The Three Uplifts, Prop-ups or Out-thrusts (San Ding)
- The head presses upwards
- The tongue touches the roof of the mouth
- The hands press outward.
2. 三扣 The Three Hookings or Clampings (San Kou)
- The shoulders clamp or hook
- The backs of the hands and feet clamp
- The teeth clamp together
3. 三圆 The Three Circles or Roundings (San Yuan)
- The back is round
- The chest is round
- Hukou (Tiger’s Mouth) is round
4. 三敏 The Three Sensitivities or Perceptivities (San Min)
- The heart is sensitive
- The eyes are sensitive
- The hands are sensitive
5. 三抱 The Three Holdings or Embraces (San Bao)
- Embrace Dantian
- Embrace Heart Qi
- Embrace the ribs
6. 三屈 The Three Bends or Curves (San Qu)
- The arms are curved
- The knees are curved
- The wrists are curved
7. 三垂 The Three Sinks or Drops (San Chui)
- The Qi sinks
- The shoulders sink
- The elbows sink
8. 三挺 The Three Erectings or Extendings (San Ting)
- The neck extends
- The spine is extended
- The knees are extended
When holding San Ti Shi, one initially mentally reviews the Eight Necessities in order to train the form and the Qi correctly. Liu Wen Hua then summarizes the most important requirements for correct standing. These Eight requirements for San Ti Shi are easy to remember and connect with the Eight Necessities and the Eight Word Song.
- The Head Presses Up
- Erect the Neck
- Drop (Hang) the Shoulders
- The Kua Embrace
- The Forearms Wrap the Elbow
- Lift the Knee
- Lift the Anus
- The Hand Hearts Draw Inward
1. The Head Presses Up 頭頂 (Tou Ding)
Tou: head; hair; top end
Ding: top; carry on the head; gore or butt; push from below
2. Erect the Neck 項竪 (Xiang Shu)
Xiang refers to the nape of the neck
Shu: vertical; perpendicular; upright
Because erecting the neck forcefully can cause unwanted tension which blocks Qi, many boxers describes this as imagining the nape of your neck touches an imaginary collar. When the neck is vertical or Ting, (erecting upward), then the head is correctly lifted (Ding), and Jing Qi penetrated upward.
3. Drop (Hang) the Shoulders 肩垂 (Jian Chui)
Chui: hang down; droop; let fall
The shoulders are part of the Three Drops or Three Droops (San Chui三垂)
- Qi Chui
- Shoulders Chui
- Elbows Chui
When Qi Chui, then it descends to Dantian and the body is stable. When the shoulders Chui, then the arms are long and lively and the shoulders can push the elbows.When the elbows Chui, then the forearms will naturally drop and protect the ribs.
4. The Kua Embrace 抱胯 (Bao Kua)
Bao: embrace; wrap
Kua: refers to the inguinal area in the front of the pelvis and all the internal and external structures in that area, including blood, Qi and fluids passing through the area.
When the Kua embrace, the Three Embraces (San Bao 三抱) naturally engage
- Dantian Bao
- Heart Qi Bao
- Ribs Bao
The Dantian embraces Qi. When the Heart Qi is Bao, then one does not panic in adverse situations or upon meeting an opponent. This is sometimes described as(含胸拔背Han Xiong Ba Bei): “Contain (hold in) the chest; draw up the back” Containing in the chest is gentle, like holding something in your mouth. Embracing with the ribs allows the ribs to freely open and close. The Nei Gong Zhen Chuan says that the ribs are like a “fish gill.” They open and close so Qi can ascend and descend. When they [the ribs] are closed, Qi goes to assist the Dantian downward and the two kidneys backward. Once they open, like thunder coming to the ground and flying into the sky, Qi can flow upward automatically. 
5. The Forearms Wrap the Elbow 前膊裹肘 (Qian Bo Guo Zhou)
Guo: bind; wrap; bundle
This is related to three Curves or Bends (San Qu三曲):
- Forearms are Qu
- Knees are Qu
- Wrists are Qu
The three bends allow the Jin-Li of the body to be substantial and integrated
6. Lift the Knee 提膝 (Ti Xi)
Ti: lift; raise; promote; put forward – in this case it means that although the knees are externally bent, internally they have a quality of extending upward. This also relates to the San Ting(三挺), the three Erects or Uprights
- The Neck is Ting
- The Yao is Ting
- The Knees are Ting
When the knees are Ting, then the Qi will be harmonious and the spirit confortable and smooth, like a tree creating roots. When the Yao is Ting, strength will reach the four extremities and Qi will swell through the whole body.
7. Lift the Anus 提肛 (Ti Gang)
This connects with “Upholding Internally” – one of the eight Necessities. If the tongue props up the roof of the mouth, if the head and neck are erect ad if the tail sinks downward so the buttocks are smooth, then lifting or gathering the anus occurs almost automatically, without muscular effort or internal tension.
8. The Hand Hearts Draw Inward 手心回縮 (Shou Xin Hui Suo)
Xin: heart; center
Shou Xin: can refer to the palm cetner or “Palm Heart”
Hui: return; come back; circle; wind
Suo: contract; shrink; withdraw
This is relates to the Three Roundings (San Yuan三圆):
- Back is Yuan
- Chest is Yuan
- Hu Kou is Yuan
When the back is Yuan power pushes from the body, the Sacral Gate (Wei Lu) is aligned, and Jing and Qi to penetrate and go upward to transform into Shen. When the Chest is Yuan, the strength of the two elbows is full, the heart is calm and respiration is smooth. Rounding the back and chest help Hu Kou to be naturally round. This creates a feeling of the palm center turning back and drawing inward, so the hands and fingers have an extending and embracing power.
Practicing San Ti Shi
The word Shi (式) in San Ti Shi Shi means posture or pattern. Thinking of San Ti Shi as a pattern of interconnected and interacting body alignments is more useful than thinking of standing in San Ti Shi as merely an external posture held for period of time. Understanding San Ti Shi Shi as a “body pattern” is a great aid in performing San Ti Shi Shi correctly. The “Pattern,” in the context of Xing Yi Quan, includes an interweaving of the external body alignments, the internal “alignments of the organs, the intention, Qi, Jin, and Spirit. These alignments are described by the Eight Necessities, and the Eight Word Song. Once the body pattern is understood, it can be monitored without conscious effort.
Holding a fixed posture builds strength and develops unified whole-body power. However, it also teaches one to embrace inner stillness and feel the stirrings of movement with the stillness. Typically, Xing Yi teachers advise students to stand in San Ti Shi for one hour. This teaches the body to relax and the Heart-Mind to sense inside. Once you can hold the pattern for a period of time without discomfort, you can engage with what is happening inside.
San Ti Shi should be performed in a natural posture that is not too long or wide. The weight should be almost even between the two feet.
Mai Ming Chun, a disciple of Master Li Gui Chang quotes Master Li’s remarks on San Ti Shi:
San Ti was also called San Cai in the ancient times. San Ti refers to the heaven, earth and human beings. In Xing Yi Quan, it refers to the upper, middle and lower Dantian areas, and refers to the head, hand and foot externally. Before, many people training Xing Yi Quan injured their legs. This is a fact. The reason is that they did not stand in San Ti correctly. There are basically two reasons: In practicing San Ti, one must practice standing for a long time – from 6 months to three years. Many people stood in San Ti without inquiring about its principle, just standing there with strength. The second reason is most people stand in thirty percent and seventy percent weighting. People do not understand the thirty percent and seventy percent weighting is a single weighting method, a method for practical application of the attacking and defending techniques. It should not be adopted in the beginning of training.
In the beginning, it is necessary to stand in a balanced position with a slightly bigger step, namely, equal strength in both legs and the same sensation in both soles. The purpose of this is to train the balance of the body and the balance of internal qi and blood. Without balance of qi and blood, there will be no health. If there is no balance in the body, how could it be possible to change? Therefore, it is necessary to seek balance before looking for changes. Balance is necessary for there to be single weighting. Then success will be possible with single weighting. 
It is interesting to note all the Masters pictured in this article stand in a balanced and relaxed posture.
Xing Yi Master Song Zhi Yong, a disciple of Master Li Gui Chang, advises one to stand and merely sense. His advice: don’t think about sinking Qi to Dantian; don’t think about power; just sense what is actually happening inside. When I asked Master Song how to improve in Pushing Hands practice, he advised me to practice more San Ti Shi and embrace inner listening and inner sensing while standing.
Robert Smith, author of Hsing –I: Chinese Mind-Body Boxing,expands on this idea:
The internal requires quiet, stillness. But this stillness is not simply the absence of sound. It is a total presence or attentiveness, which must be part of the discipline if excellence is to emerge. I believe that the silences a man must live with in training in the internal themselves produce part of the skill that ultimately comes. When the silence releases its new energy, a quiet mind is produced, and when this happens the whole being becomes truly active. 
When standing, the body is apparently still externally, but internally there is motion. Once stillness is understood as stillness; then motion is also stillness. Once motion is understood as motion. Then stillness is also motion.  From stillness one can understand motion. Once motion is understood then one can perceive stillness within movement. This may seem abstract, but the experience of a student who practiced Zhan Zhuang (Standing) can aid understanding. He previously practiced Aiki and Jiujitsu. After practicing Zhan Zhuang for 6 months he returned to practicing grappling with some friends. They were amazed he seemed to know what they were going to do before they did it. He explained by understanding what was his own internal movement, he then knew what was not his own internal movement, but came from outside. He could then detect the very beginnings of their movements and changes – the intention of moving before it became manifest.
Master Sun Lu Tang equates San Ti Shi with the Qi of emptiness. The One Qi arises from emptiness and Yin and Yang are produced from the One Qi. Yin and Yang combine to become the San Cai, the Trinity of Heaven, Earth, and Human Beings. Heaven and Earth are the root, while Yin and Yang (within us) are the ancestors.
Their interaction and harmony create the Golden Pill (Jin Dan 金丹), the Daoist Pill of Immortality. The Golden Pill is a metaphor for the inner transformation that occurs through the practice of Xing Yi Quan – particularly San Ti Shi and Pi Quan (Splitting Fist). The Golden Pill corresponds with Nei Jin (internal strength) in Xing Yi Quan. The changes of Yin and Yang produce internal strength and skill in Xing Yi Quan. Pi Quan is the one Qi. Circulating Qi through the practice of Pi Quan (and San Ti Shi) allows things to come into being and to transform. The One Qi of Pi Quan generates all the other energies and forms in Xing Yi. 
Master Cheng Qun Gong, a disciple of Li Gui Chang, elaborates on movement within stillness:
Thus, after training Zhan Zhuang for some time, changes will take place in the body, naturally giving birth to some phenomena. Master Li described: ‘In winter, the insects drill into the ground like they are dead, and when the spring comes and vitality rises in the ground, the insects will live again. In the Zhan Zhuang posture, [we] want to stand so that this vitality arises, like the insects recovering and revitalizing, so that the body possesses refined strength.
Master Li also said: ‘[After training] Zhan Zhuang for a while, naturally (one) cultivates and senses a flowing sensation, smooth and unhindered in some areas of the body and unusual in some areas. Then gradually [you] turn and shift or perhaps tremble and shake, until the whole body is smooth and unobstructed. In this way the outside body form regulates the internal (intrinsic) functions.’
Master Li described in Zhan Zhuang, this phenomenon occurs naturally and spontaneously in the body, and this insect-creeping and flowing sensation is instinctive, not produced by imagination. In Zhan Zhuang, [one] must to stand so the creeping, sensation comes naturally. It is only natural that the initial period of Zhan Zhuang is painful and arduous. The type of suffering varies from person to person. Older people feel more pain and those in young age feel less pain – more painful if the muscles appear obvious  and less painful if the muscles are not obvious. But, this pain will decrease gradually and is periodical. After going through this period, (you) will feel comfortable, and then (you) have a beginning and finally (you) will enjoy Zhan Zhuang a great deal and will walk lightly and freely.
Master Li said: ‘In Zhan Zhuang there is one important point, often tremble and shake the whole body. It is said bears in hibernation in the winter will spontaneously shake and tremble all over every few days. Otherwise, the body is stagnant and does not move, and a problem will occur. Similarly, why are [you] unable to maintain (hold) the standing posture? It is precisely because this shaking is lacking. By shaking the body delicately and slightly, (you) can enjoy the standing gong and nourish life.  In fact, when issuing force  during a martial contest, it is also this type of shaking.’ The truth of this ‘shaking’ is to relax your body, when any problem occurs during in Zhan Zhuang. 
After standing in San Ti Shi, Li Gui Chang’s disciples advocate taking a stroll for 5-10 minutes. Walking helps the body to relax and harmonize. It is the “final settling”  that completes and integrates the practice. Walk briskly, moving from Ming men. Do not talk, just sense inside the body.
Liu Wen Hua sums up by saying one must train diligently so the tendons and bones have ample Qi and blood, both internally and externally. Then they become strong. Qi and power share the same root. If Qi is sufficient, strength can manifest. In talking about the relationship between the power and posture, it is said one must first seek to have sufficient Qi in order to train the posture and you also must pay attention to the posture in training Qi, for both Qi and posture are inter-dependent. The difference is posture is shown externally and can be seen while Qi flows deeply and internally and cannot be observed. Thus students who pay attention [only] to the postures neglect the flow of Qi. 
Training this way creates an ever-changing adaptive ability that allows for fluid application in accordance with the actual circumstances. Liu then goes on to say that one must train diligently, rather than sitting in meditation praying to the immortals. 
 Nei Gong: The Authentic Classic – A translation of the Nei Gong Zhen Chuan. Tom Bisio, Huang Guo Qi and Joshua Paynter – trans. (Denver: Outskirts Press, 2011) p. 69.
 Detailed Collection of the Art of Xing Yi Quan. Liu Wen Hua, (October, 1920). Translated by Tom Bisio and Huang Guo Qi (New York Internal Arts & Internal Arts International)
 Dao Guan 道关: Dao means “path” or “road” and Guan means “barrier” or “pass.”
 Qi 齊: Orderly, Neat, Unified, Even; Together
 對 Dui: points, tips, alignments. In this case, three points of structural body alignment.
 精神 Jing Shen: Essence-Spirit. In Daoism and Chinese medicine, essence and spirit are transformed and replenished by the action of the Qi.
 Nei Gong: The Authentic Classic – A translation of the Nei Gong Zhen Chuan. Tom Bisio, Huang Guo Qi, and Joshua Paynter – trans. (Denver: Outskirts Press, 2011) p. . 57.
 My Apprenticeship with Li Gui Chang. Mao Ming Chu. Translated by Huang Guo-Qi.
 Hsing –I: Chinese Mind-Body Boxing. Robert Smith (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1974) p. 22.
 Nei Gong: The Authentic Classic – A translation of the Nei Gong Zhen Chuan. p. 75.
 A Study of Xing Yi Boxing (形意拳学). Sun Lu Tang (Sun Fu Quan), May 1915
 Are well-defined
 养生Yang Sheng: “nourishing life.” A term used to refer to many types of Nei Gong and Qi Gong practices. The implication is these practices help to improve health and prolong life.
 发力 Fa Li: literally “emitting strength” or “issuing force.” Often used interchangeably with Fa Jin 发劲
 归宿 Gui Su: “returning home”; “ final settling.”
 Detailed Collection of the Art of Xing Yi Quan. Liu Wen Hua, (October, 1920). Translated by Tom Bisio and Huang Guo Qi (New York Internal Arts & Internal Arts International